Assessment of metal contamination in Ubeyi River and accumulation in fish and sediment
This study assessed heavy metals concentration and physicochemical characteristics in water, fish, and sediment at Ubeyi River in Ebonyi State, Nigeria using standard methods. Data obtained revealed that, the highest pH (6.225) and turbidity (60.35 NTU) were observed at the upstream. The highest BOD (0.405 mg/l) and EC (200.05 μmhos/cm) were obtained at the middle stream which were significantly (P<0.05) higher than values obtained at the upstream (0.205 mg/l and 100.05 μmhos/cm) and downstream (0.067 mg/l and 40.05 μmhos/cm). The highest value of TSS (101.50 mg/l) was observed at the downstream. Cd (0.00015 mg/l), Cr (4.125 mg/l), Zn (2.615 mg/l), Ni (1.47 mg/l), and Pb (0.00015 mg/l) in water at the upstream was statistically (P>0.05) the same with their corresponding values at middle stream (0.00015, 4.13, 2.675, 1.465, and 0.00015 mg/l) and downstream (0.00015, 4.135, 2.305, 1.445, and 0.00015 mg/l). Similarly, no statistical difference (P>0.05) exist in the values of metals in fish and sediment at the upstream, middle stream, and downstream. Dissolved oxygen and Turbidity of the river were higher than the permissible limit of 5.0 mg/l and 5.0 NTU by WHO Codex Alimentarius while Ni, Pb, Cr, Cd and Zn in water were below WHO permissible limit of 0.02, 0.01, 0.05, 0.003, and 1.0 mg/l in water, respectively.
Keywords: Metal, fish, sediment, Ubeyi, river