Evaluation of Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb levels in commonly used cosmetics and some adverse reactions in Ibadan Metropolis, South-West Nigeria
Skin absorption remains a major source of heavy metal toxicity in humans. This study determine the heavy metals content of selected cosmetics frequently used in Ibadan South-west Nigeria using AAS model ICE 3000 and some adverse reactions. Questionnaires administered to people of different age groups and classes in the society informed the choice of representative cosmetics for heavy metals analysis. The questionnaire revealed gender distribution usage of 84.7% and 15.3%; for female and male respectively. Cosmetics use was observed to be highest among the age bracket 21-25years (30.7%). Unmarried (single) females (58.9%) used cosmetics more than the married (40.6%). While 5.9% used it for bleaching, 21.3% had various adverse effects arising from cosmetics usage. All the various cosmetics brands contained Cr, Ni and Cd. Cr levels in eyeliner (12.7ppm) and face-powder (2.5ppm) were higher than EPA limit (1ppm). Pb levels in eyeliner (87.8ppm) and hair-dye (21.6ppm) were higher than WHO limits (10ppm). Cd levels in eyeliner (0.8ppm), lip-gloss (0.5ppm) and face-powder (1.8ppm) were higher than WHO limits (0.3ppm). The cumulative exposure to heavy metals in cosmetics products as a result of prolonged use could be a possible source of heavy metals toxicity.
Keywords: Heavy Metals, Cosmetics, Toxicity, Exposure