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Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management

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Evaluation of the Cytogenotoxic Effects of Emulsifiable Concentrate form of Amitraz Pesticide on Allium cepa L

A.A Adesuyi, K.L Njoku, A.L Ogunyebi, E.O Dada, A.H Adedokun, A.O Jolaoso, M.O Akinola

Abstract


The cytogenotoxic effects of emulsifiable concentrate of amitraz pesticides was evaluated using Allium cepa L. test. The root meristems of A. cepa L. were treated with five concentrations (1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%) of the chemical pesticide at 48 h for cytogenetic analyses and 96 h for root length inhibition. Pesticide doses affected root length significantly (P<0.05) at 5% to 40%; with 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 18% while there was no significant difference between control and 1% (p>0.05). The mean root length of the treated A. cepa for Amitraz pesticides in all concentrations was lower compared to the control showing the obvious mitodepressive effects of amitraz pesticides. A dose dependent reduction in the total mitotic dividing cells and mitotic index was observed in A. cepa treated with the pesticides. The values of mitotic index obtained for amitraz pesticides at 5% (5.20), 10% (4.0), 20% (2.30) and 40% (0.80) were lower than half of the negative control (7.25), which reflect its cytotoxicity. All the concentrations of the pesticides used in the present study induced important abnormalities during mitotic division. These aberrations were: chromosome stickiness, disturbed spindle, anaphase and telophase bridges, chromosome fragments, laggard chromosomes, and c- Mitosis. The highest abnormality number was observed in the root tips of Allium cepa (5%) while the least was at 40%. Frequencies of chromosome abnormalities were low at 20% and 40% concentration because of damaged cell and lower cell divisions. The present study, showed the inhibition of growth and induction of chromosomal aberrations by amitraz, this suggest their capability in inducing cytotoxicity and genome instability

Keywords: Allium cepa, chromosomes, amitraz pesticides, aberrations, mitotic index




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