Multidrug Resistance Patterns and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index of Salmonella species Isolated from Waste Dumps in Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria
Several items containing residual antimicrobial agents are disposed of in dumpsites, placing a pressure on the microbial flora and a potential for development of resistance in these microorganisms. Multidrug resistance
patterns and multiple antibiotic resistance index of Salmonella spp. isolated from waste dumps in Zaria Metropolis were thus assayed in this study using one hundred and twelve (112) soil samples collected from four waste dumpsites located in Sabon-Gari, Samaru, Tudun-Wada and Zaria City. Salmonella spp. were isolated by culture methods on selective media and characterized using a series of biochemical tests. The isolates were confirmed using microgen identification kits. Results were statistically analysed using percentages. The antibiotic resistance patterns were determined, using the disc-diffusion method. Ten antibiotics belonging to eight different classes, namely B-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, Nitrofurantoins, sulphonamides, and phenicols were tested. The result of the study revealed that 57.2% of the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) taken as resistance to four or more antibiotics tested. On the other hand, all the isolates showed 100% susceptibility to Chloramphenicol (30μg) and Gentamicin (30μg) while 76.2% had Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index of 0.2 and above. The isolates showing resistance to the highest number of antibiotics were obtained from refuse dumpsites in Zaria City while an isolate from Sabon-Gari was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. These results could be indicative of possible disposal of these drug residues in the waste dump locations making them hot spots for development of resistance.
Keywords: Salmonella spp., Waste Dumps, Resistance Pattern, MAR Index, Zaria Metropolis.