Phenotypic Detection of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase and Metallo-β-Lactamase Produced by Escherichia Coli on Automated Teller Machines within Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

  • HY Ungokore
  • AO Omole
  • T Nuhu
  • A Olowookere
  • M Jodi Saadutu
  • IA Ogunyinka
  • AS Shuaibu
Keywords: ESBL, MDR, ATM and Susceptibility


It is no longer a fallacy that environmental objects are grossly  contaminated by pathogenic microbes. ATMs especially which is used on daily basis by thousands of people have been reported to be potential
habitat for these microbes. The worst-case scenario is the presence and ease of spread of Muti-Drug Resistant (MDR) and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing pathogens via these machines as a result of their huge patronage. The prevalence and fast spread of these MDR and ESBL producing strains constitute an emerging public health concern. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of ESBL and MBL producing E. coli isolated on ATMs within Sokoto metropolis. A total of 194 isolates were obtained from the culture samples of 100 ATM swabs. The isolated E. coli were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests using the modified Kirby Baeur disc diffusion method on six (6) commercial antimicrobial discs (Oxoid, UK): Ceftazidime (CTZ, 30μg), Cefotaxime (CTX, 30μg), Gentamycin (CN, 10μg), Augumentin(AMC, 30μg), Ciprofloxacin(CIP, 5μg) and Imipenem(IPM, 10μg). The isolates were further screened for ESBL production and phenotypic confirmatory test.
Confirmation of MBL production was also performed using antibiotic discs containing two Carbapenems (Imipenem IPM, 10μg and Meropenem MEM, 10μg). The result was interpreted using CLSI guideline 2015. Proteus spp (43%) were the most frequently isolated bacteria, followed by Shigella spp (31%) and E. coli 31(16%). Drug Resistant (MDR) ESBL producing E. coli of 93.3% and 4% MBL producer was recorded. It can be concluded that MDR and ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) are the most prevalent species isolated and that the species isolated are more sensitive to Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem.

Keywords: ESBL, MDR, ATM and Susceptibility



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eISSN: 2659-1502
print ISSN: 1119-8362