Decentralized Solid Waste Management in Rural Ghana: A Case Study of Assin Kushea Community in Assin North Municipality
Management of solid waste continues to be a major developmental challenge for developing countries like Ghana. The current focus and attention have been on the collection and dumping of waste in urban communities where generation rate is high to the detriment of rural communities. In this study, a pilot waste management scheme was undertaken in Assin Kushea, a rural community in the Assin North Municipality, to determine the willingness of the community to sort their waste at source, the quantity of waste generated by the community, and the characteristics of the waste to inform the treatment or disposal options suitable for the community. The results of the study showed that the community generates approximately 20 to 40 kg waste per day which comprises about 77% biological municipal waste (BMW) and 23% of residual waste. Laboratory analysis of the waste showed that the moisture content of the waste was about 68%. The percentage volatile solid was about 85.45%, leaving an ash content of approximately 14.55% all by weight of the waste materials. More than 50% of the sampled population achieved 100% source separation efficiency. Given the composition and characteristics of the waste, and the willingness of the community to sort their waste at source, composting or anaerobic fermentation of the organic waste fraction is recommended as the best waste treatment option for the organic component of the waste for the community.