Euphorbia Graminea Jacq. (Euphorbiaceae): A Comparative Antimicrobial Evaluations of Stem and Root Extracts

  • E. O. Ikpefan
  • J. O. Ikpefan
  • S. O. Ovbiagele
  • U. Ejienyafu
  • C. B. Ojumah
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance;, phytochemicals;, Euphorbia graminea;, traditional medicine;, herbs


Antimicrobial resistance is a global issue. Euphorbia plants are used locally to treat microbial infections. This study examined the antimicrobial potential of Euphorbia graminea stem and root extracts. The stems and roots extracts of E .graminea were extracted using 80% methanol and tested for antimicrobial activity at concentrations between 4.69-300mg/mL against non-clinical isolates (S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. albican, A. niger). The active roots extract was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatographic fractionations (VLC) and the resulting fractions bulked and tested against the organisms at 6.25-100mg/mL.  The MIC of extracts and vlc bulked fractions were tested at 0.39-6.25 mg/mL.  The root extract recorded higher antimicrobial activities over the stem extract especially against S. aureus and E.coli, hence was fractionated. Among the vlc sub-fractions of the roots extract, fractions A (2) recorded no activity against the test organisms while fractions C (9-10) recorded 7.50 and 3.50 mm against S. aureus and E. coli only at the maximum concentration of 100mg/mL. However, fractions B (3-8) conspicuously gave zones of inhibitions far higher than the other fractions. This study has shown that the roots extract of E. graminea has higher antimicrobial activities more than the stems, further justifying the ethno-botanical potentials of the plant in treating skin infections.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2659-1502
print ISSN: 1119-8362