Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management

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Differential Sensitivity of Nitrogen-Fixing, Azolla Microphylla to Organochlorine and Organophosphate Insecticide

W Raja, P Rathaur, R Ashiq


The development of the intensive agriculture in our country between 1960 and 1990 totally over passed the aspect connected with the negative impact of the toxic chemical compounds on the air, water and soil.
Using chemical products as nutrients, fertilizers and pesticides, we believe
that we attack our safety and we must know the effects of pesticides from
these compounds. Application of pesticides in the paddy fields has deleterious effects on non-target organisms including Azolla which are
photosynthesizing and nitrogen fixing micro-organisms contributing significantly towards soil fertility and crop yield. Pesticide contamination
in the paddy fields has manifested into a serious global environmental
concern. Present study was aimed to study the comparative effect of two
such pesticides, a well-known species of Azolla, Azolla Microphylla were
selected for their stress responses to an Organochlorine insecticide -
Endosulfan, and Organophosphate insecticide-Monocrotophos with reference to their growth, Free radicals, Antioxidant enzymes and metabolites. Azolla microphylla strains were adversely affected by the
insecticide doses and inhibition was dose dependent. But the highest
decrease was seen in case of organochlorine insecticides. Pesticide
treatment with increasing doses accelerated the formation of reactive
oxygen species progressively, whereby an enhanced Antioxidant enzymes
and metabolites were noticed in A. microphylla. On the other hand,
increased amount of proline in all the insecticide treated concentrations was indicative of stressed activities of the organisms. In this work the effect of the insecticides on Azolla microphylla resulted in growth inhibition, a decline of physiological and biochemical activities but the highest effect
was shown in case of organochlorine insecticide which is commonly used
in the rice fields.

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