Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South African type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with that of healthy controls without diabetes.
Methods: A total of 98 participants (57 T2DM and 41 healthy people) gave their consent and participated in the study. Routine biochemical methods were used for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid profile measurements. Serum TAO levels, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were analysed using standard commercial reagent kits.
Results: A significant rise in FPG, HbA1c, triglycerides, MDA and ox-LDL, and a significant reduction in TAO and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was observed in T2DM patients compared with controls. A significant negative relationship was observed between TAO levels and MDA levels in the T2DM group. Increased lipid peroxidation and reduced antioxidant levels were observed in T2DM patients.
Conclusion: Early management through an antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the debilitating complications of diabetes.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress, total antioxidant status