Assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution in the coastal zone of the Accra-Tema metropolitan area
AbstractA quantitative assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution to the coastal zone of the Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area of Ghana was conducted by making an emission inventory from information on industrial, commercial and domestic activities. Three sources of air pollution were analysed, viz, emission from mobile combustion engine sources, stationary combustion sources and industrial processes. The mobile combustion sources were the largest contributors to air pollution. Concerning water pollution, 15 industrial types were investigated. The Food and Beverage industry accounted for more than 80% of the total waste volume discharged per annum. The major rivers collectively contributed more water pollution loads to the coastal zone than the industrial effects. They, however, have less negative effect. Solid waste loads, mainly in the form of dry solids and sludge, from 16 industrial types, commercial and domestic sources were computed. Commercial and domestic activities accounted for more than 50% of the solid waste load discharged per annum. About 40% of waste sludge is discharged into drains; some are incinerated, while others are disposed off by land filling.
(Journal of the Ghana Science Association: 2001 3(3): 126-135)