Open Access Subscription or Fee Access
Is there any relationship between haptoglobin phenotypes and retinopathy among Ghanaian diabetics?
This study was conducted to examine the possible association between Haptoglobin (Hp) phenotypes and diabetes retinopathy in some Ghanaians to determine whether a specific Hp phenotype predisposes diabetics to retinopathy. A total of 110 diabetics were enrolled into the study. Blood samples were taken from each participant and analyzed for Hp phenotypes and selected biochemical indices – fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, AST and ALT. The results indicated that most diabetic retinopathics were of the Hp 2-2 phenotype, whereas most of diabetics without retinopathy were of the Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1 or Hp 2-1M phenotypes. No diabetic with retinopathy had Hp 2-1M phenotype. The odds ratio of having retinopathy in a diabetic with an Hp 2-2 phenotype was 3.42 times greater than Hp 0-0. Contrary to what has been reported elsewhere, this study suggests that, among Ghanaians, the Hp 2-2 phenotype may be a major risk factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy, whereas Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-1M appear protective.