Is there any relationship between haptoglobin phenotypes and retinopathy among Ghanaian diabetics?

  • M.B Adinortey
  • B.A Gyan
  • J.P Adjimani
  • P.E Nyarko
  • A.K Nyarko
Keywords: No Keywords


This study was conducted to examine the possible association between Haptoglobin (Hp) phenotypes and diabetes retinopathy in some Ghanaians to determine whether a specific Hp phenotype predisposes diabetics to retinopathy. A total of 110 diabetics were enrolled into the study. Blood samples were taken from each participant and analyzed for Hp phenotypes and selected biochemical indices – fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, AST and ALT. The results indicated that most diabetic retinopathics were of the Hp 2-2 phenotype, whereas most of diabetics without retinopathy were of the Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1 or Hp 2-1M phenotypes. No diabetic with retinopathy had Hp 2-1M phenotype. The odds ratio of having retinopathy in a diabetic with an Hp 2-2 phenotype was 3.42 times greater than Hp 0-0. Contrary to what has been reported elsewhere, this study suggests that, among Ghanaians, the Hp 2-2 phenotype may be a major risk factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy, whereas Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-1M appear protective.

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eISSN: 0855-3823