Anaemia and its predisposing factors in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients in Jos, Nigeria
Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a rising global health problem. The association of CKD with anaemia, which causes are multifactorial, portends a poorer prognosis. When diagnosed and treated, CKD patients with anaemia experience improved cognitive function and quality of life. We determined the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors among pre-dialysis CKD patients in Jos.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) from September 2016 to May 2017 involving 55 CKD patients enrolled consecutively. History, physical examination and laboratory investigations (full blood count by automated haemato-analyser, reticulocyte count by manual supravital stain, serum creatinine by Jaffe reaction) were performed on all patients. The obtained data was analyzed using Epi Info verison 3.5.4 and p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean age of the CKD study population was 47±13years. The mean values for haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) were 11.89±3.01g/dl, 86.6±51.2fl and 27.87±8.89pg respectively. The mean white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts were 6.22±2.42 X109/L and 283±137 X109/L respectively. The mean reticulocyte production index was 1.2±1.5%. The prevalence of anaemia among CKD patients was 54.5%. Factors associated with anaemia were aging, female gender, history of diabetes mellitus and declining eGFR.
Conclusion: The prevalence of anaemia in pre-dialysis CKD patients in JUTH is high. It is recommended that CKD patients be evaluated routinely for the possible factors that may predispose or predict anaemia.
Conflict of interest: Nil
Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, anaemia