Prevalence and pattern of obesity among patients with essential hypertension in Jos, North Central Nigeria
Background: Overweight, Obesity and hypertension are components of a defined cluster of risk factors for the development of non-communicable diseases which were thought previously to be a problem of developed countries, but have now become increasingly common in the developing world. Major non-communicable diseases associated with this cluster include; cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), atherogenic dyslipidaemia and certain types of cancer.
Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of obesity among patients with essential hypertension in Jos, North Central Nigeria.
Method: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Three hundred and forty (340) adults with essential hypertension were recruited consecutively into the study. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain relevant socio-demographic history; anthropometric variables were measured from each study participant. Overweight and obesity were defined by using international classification adopted by World Health Organization (WHO).
Results: Females comprised 67.9% of the study population. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the study subjects was found to be 33.5% and 42.6% respectively. The proportion of obese females(49.8%) was significantly higher than obese males(27.5%) p <0.000. Most of the study subjects (79.1%) had abnormal waist Circumference(WC). The proportion of females with abnormal WC (95%) was significantly higher than males(55.0%), p=0.000. Two hundred and forty-three (71.5%) study subjects had abnormal Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR); more males (71.6%) had abnormal WHR compared to females (71.4%), p=0.980.
Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity (both generalized and central) was found to be high among hypertensives in Jos. The relative frequency of all forms of obesity aside WHR was higher in females. Hypertensives should be screened early for obesity and managed appropriately to avert attendant morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: Prevalence and pattern, Obesity, Overweight, Essential Hypertension