The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Dwellers in A Peri-Urban District of Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant health issue affecting about 296 million people worldwide. The disease is of great public health concern in Ghana as the country is within the endemic region of HBV infection. This study sought to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors among dwellers in a peri-urban district of Ghana. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Sunyani West District of the Bono Region of Ghana. Respondents aged ≥18 years were purposively recruited from the four major towns in the District with health centres. A questionnaire was used to collect data from participants, and a rapid diagnostic test for the sero-presence or otherwise of hepatitis B infection was conducted. A total of 992 respondents took part in the study, with the prevalence of HBV infection using HBsAg as a marker among all the study participants being 2.9% (male 4.0% (12/298), female 2.5% (17/694)). Females aged between 20-29 years had a comparatively higher prevalence of hepatitis B infection than their corresponding males. The intake of alcohol (RR=4.23; 95% CI:2.05-8.74, p <0.000), previously diagnosed of having a sexually transmitted disease (RR= 2.43; 95% CI: 1.03-5.71, p = .04) and having multiple sexual partners (RR= 2.27; 95% CI: 1.11-4.65, p = .02) were the significant risk factors for HBV infection among the study participants. The study showed a low prevalence of HBV infection in the Sunyani West District of Ghana using HBsAg as a serum marker to diagnose the infection.
Keywords: Hepatitis, prevalence, risk factors, Sunyani West