Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Uropathogenic Bacterial Isolates from Community- and Hospital-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Yobe State, Nigeria.
The study was designed to find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in Yobe State with particular emphasis on community-acquired (CA) and hospital acquired (HA) UTIs and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of causative bacterial strains. A retrospective study of 1,577 urine samples processed at the Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Nguru from June 2001 to June 2005 was undertaken. The urines were collected from in-patients and out-patients services and processed under standard laboratory procedures, while antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using Kirby-Bauer method. Results were analysed using SPSS 11.0 statistical software while p values < 0.05 were considered significant. The overall prevalence of UTI was 17.3%; with males and females accounting for 6.0% and 11.3% episodes respectively. The rate of UTI decreased proportionately with the increasing age of the patients; these age-specific variations were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). The rate of UTI among in-patients (6.8%) was also found to be significantly higher than that of out-patients (10.5%) (p < 0.05). The commonest organism encountered in the study was Escherichia coli (CA-19.9%; HA-11.5%) followed by Klebsiella spp. (CA-12.8%; HA-8.9%). Other organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (CA-10.1%; HA-5.8%); Salmonella spp. (CA-2.4%; HA-0.0%); Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) (CA-4.7%; HA-2.7%); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CA-1.7%; HA-3.7%), Streptococcus faecalis (CA-1.4%; HA-5.7%); Proteus mirabilis (CA-1.7%; HA-3.0%), Candida albicans (CA-2.0%; HA-1.7%); and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CA-2.4%; HA-0.0%). Most isolates were resistant to Penicillins, Tetracycline, Cotrimoxazole, Nalidixic acid and Erythromycin, while Augmentin, Ofloxacin, Ceftazidime and Ceftriaxone recorded high levels of activity against majority of the isolates. Augmentin, Ofloxacin, Ceftazidime and Ceftriaxone should be considered along with other clinical factors in the choice of first-line drugs for the treatment of UTI where susceptibility test is unavailable.
Keywords: Urinary tract infection, community-acquired, hospital-acquired
Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences Vol. 14 (2) 2005: pp. 54-61