Clinical Correlates of Depression among Diabetics in Jos, Nigeria

  • MT Agbir
  • TO Adebowale
  • MD Audu
  • SG Goar
  • FH Puepet
  • MW Osika
Keywords: Depression, Diabetes, Clinical variables, Complications.

Abstract

Background: Studies have consistently shown that depression among diabetics is associated with poor glyceamic control and an increase risk for the complications of diabetes. However, few studies have look at the clinical correlates of depression among diabetics in this environment. The aim of this study was to identify clinical variables associated with depression among diabetics.
Methodology: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 160 diabetics at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH). A semi-structured questionnaire was used to record clinical variables and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis-I Disorders (SCID) was used for the diagnosis of depression among subjects, subsequently Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was used to measure the severity of depression.
Results: A total of 31 of the 160 diabetic subjects were identified as depressed using DSM-IV criteria giving a one-year prevalence rate of 19.4%. Twenty-one (67.7%) of these depressed diabetics were rated as having minor depression and 10(32.5%) as moderate to severe depression using HDRS. The mean age for the population studied was 53.49±11.36 years with 68.1% aged less than 60 years. Sixty-six (41.3%) of the subjects were females and 94(58.8%) males. Depression among diabetics studied was significantly associated with gender (p=0.001) with a female to male ratio of 3:1, high level of Fasting Blood Sugar-FBS
(p=0.043), long duration of diabetes (p=0.002) and complications of diabetes (p=0.002).
Conclusion: The study revealed that depression among diabetics is associated with an impairment of glyceamic control and diabetes complications. It was therefore suggested that diabetic patients be screened for depression to allow for early detection and treatment to
reduce complications and improve quality of life.
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