Stroke Risk Factors among Patients in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital
Background and Purpose: Epidemiological studies have identified modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for stroke. The aim of this study was to describe the risk factors in stroke patients admitted in a Nigerian teaching hospital.
Methods: This is a prospective study carried out in the Jos University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. The participants were 120 patients admitted into the hospital with stroke. Stroke was defined by the WHO definition. Demographic variables, clinical and laboratory data were recorded.
Results: There were 74(61.7%) males and 46(38.3%) female patients. The age range was 18-85 years with a mean of 55±15.2. Twenty seven (22.5%) of the patients were younger than 45 years. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor which was found in 94(78.3%) of the participants. Central obesity was the second commonest risk factor. This was seen in 73(60.8%) of the participants. There were 38(31.7%) participants with Diabetes Mellitus. Twenty six (21.7%) of the patients had a previous stroke. Others were cardiac disease in 5 (4.2%), HIV in 4(3.3%), sickle cell disease in 2(1.7%) and atrial fibrillation in one (0.8%) patient. There were 83(69.2%) participants who had two or more modifiable risk factors for stroke. Of the 120 patients, 82(68.3%) had likely ischaemic stroke while 33(27.5%) had likely haemorrhagic stroke. Five (4.2%) patients had undetermined stroke.
Conclusion: The commonest risk factors noted in our patients can be easily altered with lifestyle modification. Early diagnoses of both Hypertension and Diabetes with compliance to medications are of utmost importance in our patients.
Key Words: Central obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Previous stroke, Risk factors Stroke