Spatio-temporal changes of land use land cover dynamics and its implication on urban flood vulnerability in Makurdi, Nigeria
Makurdi as one of the major city located on the flood plain along river Benue in Nigeria is exposed to the recurring flooding events which results to loss of life and properties. Hence there is need to analysed the spatio-temporal Land use Land cover (LULC) Dynamics and its implication on Urban Flood Vulnerability in Makurdi, Nigeria. LULC change was determined using Remote Sensing techniques and Geographic Information System; the land use was classified into five classes from 1986 - 2016 to monitor the changes that have taken place over time and space. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area were created and classified into three classes; High, Moderate, and Low risk areas. Soil infiltration analyses were performed in some selected sample points across the study area. The result revealed that Wadata area have a high bulk density and moisture content of 1.46g and 89% respectively indicating low rate of infiltration thereby accelerating runoff and flood event. Similarly, from the interpretation of the different epoch of Landsat images it shows that built-up areas have been on increase from 4.82% in 1986 to 35.36% in 2016 which has resulted to encroachment into the flood plain. The classified DEM -slope shows that about 40016.09 hectares (48.43%) of the land mass is within the flood plain. Consequently, there is need to identify and developed strategies for sustainable urban flood plain development for the attainment of resilience urban flood.
Keywords: Spatio-temporal, LULC, Urban Flood, Bulk Density and encroachment