Assessment of conservation conflicts in kwari-kwasa forest reserve and its environs Kebbi state, Nigeria
Conservation conflicts in Kwari-Kasa forest reserve and its environment were investigated. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection using simple random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that the major occupation of the people is farming (55.6%), followed by fuelwood gathering (22.2%) and Civil servant (0.9%) are the least vocation of the people. Three districts were identified in the study area. Farming (16.7%) was the highest causes of conservation conflicts in Dalijan district. While illiteracy was the main causes of conflicts in Gwandu and Kambaza districts with 14.3% and 17.9% respectively. Desertification (40.0%) was the major impacts of conservation conflicts in the study area, followed by climate change (22.2%) and the least was low rainfall (4.4%). Agroforestry practices (22.1%) were recorded as main strategy suggested, followed by forest education (20.0%) and the least strategy documented was good forest management (6.7%). The stepwise multiple regression analysis of the causes with other variables showed that illiteracy had the highest coefficient of determination R2 with 0.83, followed by farming with R2 (0.78), while briquetting of charcoal had the least R2 (0.40). However, sustainable livelihood empowerment programs were recommended to boost the living standard of the people in the area and to reduce their overdependence on the forest resources.
Keywords: Conservation conflict, Respondent, Farming, livelihood, Illiteracy