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This study was carried out in order to ascertain population and distribution of Black and White Colobus monkey in the Marguba and Tede ranges of Old Oyo National Park. Two ranges Marguba and Tede were selected based on habitat preference of the species. Two transects were laid in each range; Ipadeaya and Oopo in Marguba and Lower-Ogun and Iwawa in Tede range. Each transect was traversed morning and evening once a week for three months to count the monkeys and observe their activities, identify and survey the vegetation in the area and record the elevation of each transect. Collected data were subjected to descriptive statistic and inferential statistic. The results showed total population of fifty (50) Black and White Colobus monkeys with Tede range having the highest. The results also reveal higher sightings of the monkeys in the morning than in the evening. There was no significant relationship between the population of the monkeys and the examined variables in the two ranges, F (4, 12) = 29.237, p = 0.791. The study concluded that there was no relationship between population of Black and White Colobus monkeys in the two ranges and the examined variables in the ranges. Further study is recommended in the two ranges to determine factors that might be influencing the monkeys’ population.