Medical Journal of Zambia

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Anaemia in pregnancy among pregnant women in Lusaka District, Zambia

M.K. Lubeya, B Vwalika


Objectives: This study investigated the problem of anaemia in pregnancy and its associated factors.
Methods: The study involved 216 women booking for antenatal care between September 2015 and January 2016. A structured questionnaire was administered to all eligible women to determine their socio demographic and economic status, reproductive factors, health seeking behaviour and clinical state. Blood for a full blood count was collected. Women found with anaemia were immediately referred to their clinicians for further management. Data was analysed using SPSS software.  Inferential analyses were conducted using Chi square and Ttest. For the historical independent variables with a known significant association with anaemia, a stepwise backward logistic regression was done.
Results: Out of 216 women enrolled in the study, Seventy nine (36.2%) were found to be anaemic. The mean haemoglobin was 11.2g/dl. Thirty six women (45.6%) had mild anaemia, forty one (51.9%) had moderate anaemia while two (2.5%) had severe anaemia. In analysis lower family income and lower intake of vegetables were statistically significant with p values of 0.020 and 0.023 respectively. After adjusting for confounders, HIV infection remained significant with HIV positive women being 2.7 times more likely to have anaemia (OR 2.7, CI 1.06-6.70) univariate
Conclusion: Anaemia remains a public health problem among pregnant women in Zambia. Risk factors include HIV infection, Low intake of vegetables and low family income. Recommendations: Women need continued education on importance of vegetable intake during pregnancy and involvement in legal income generating activities to boost family income. Women of reproductive age under HIV care need continuous education on anaemia prevention in pregnancy.

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