Competition policy and law appertain to market and/or market reform which has become an important ingredient of the democratic process1 in countries which are in transition from authoritarian systems to a liberal democracy. Furthermore, competition and/or competition law are not only concepts of law but have become important yardsticks of economic development. It goes without saying that a meaningful implementation of the competition regime requires putting in place not only a proper and adequate competition law, but it also needs the establishment of an autonomous and capable competition authority. The first part of this article deals with concepts and principles related to competition policies and laws, and in the second part a modest
attempt has been made to appraise the Ethiopian situation in light of what has been addressed in the first part.