Medication Adherence and Direct Treatment Cost among Diabetes Patients Attending a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Ogbomosho, Nigeria
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is now prevalent in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with associated health and socioeconomic consequences. Adherence to antidiabetic medications has been shown to improve glycaemic control, which subsequently improves both the short- and longterm prognosis of the disease. The main objective of this study was to assess the level of adherence to antidiabetic drugs among outpatients in a teaching hospital in southwestern Nigeria.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) among diabetic patients attending the medical outpatients’ diabetes clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, in Ogbomosho, Oyo State in southwestern Nigeria, during a three-month period (October to December 2013).
Results: A total of 129 patients participated in the study with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.5. Seventy-eight (60.5%) patients had systemic hypertension as a comorbid condition while the remaining were being managed for diabetes mellitus alone. Only 6 (4.7%) of the patients had type 1 DM while the remaining 123 (95.3%) were diagnosed with type 2 DM. Metformin was the most prescribed oral hypoglycaemic agent (n = 111, 58.7%) followed by glibenclamide (n = 49, 25.9%). Medication adherence was classified as good, medium, and poor for 52 (40.6%), 42 (32.8%), and 34 (26.6%) patients, respectively. Medication costs accounted for 72.3% of the total direct cost of DM in this study, followed by the cost of laboratory investigations (17.6%).
Conclusion: Adherence of diabetes patients in the study sample to their medications was satisfactory. There is a need for the integration of generic medicines into routine care as a way of further reducing the burden of healthcare expenditure on the patients.