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Background: Amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) are commonly prescribed in Nigeria either as a monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. The present study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive efficacy of monotherapy with amlodipine or HCTZ and their effects on electrolyte profile in patients with mild to moderate hypertension.
Methods: A single-blind randomized clinical study was used; fifty patients newly diagnosed with mild to moderate hypertension (aged 33 to 60 years) were recruited and divided into two groups: amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide each comprising of 25 subjects. The subjects received 5mg of amlodipine or 25mg of hydrochlorothiazide in their respective group once daily for 4 weeks. Blood pressure, serum and urine electrolytes were measured at baseline and weekly throughout the experiment.
Results: At the end of follow up, amlodipine reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly more (p<0.001) than HCTZ. At the end of follow up, blood pressure was reduced to normal in 80% of the subjects in amlodipine group compared to 50% in HCTZ. Amlodipine had no significant effect on electrolyte profile of subjects unlike HCTZ which significantly changed both their serum and urine electrolytes.
Conclusions: Monotherapy with amlodipine was more effective than HCTZ in black patients with mild to moderate hypertension and in addition maintained electrolyte balance.