Risk factors for chronic kidney disease among patients at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital in Sagamu, Nigeria: A retrospective cohort study
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and often goes undetected and undiagnosed until the disease is well advanced and kidney failure is imminent. It is estimated that approximately 36 million Nigerians suffer from different stages of CKD, as one in seven Nigerians has kidney disease.
Methods: This research was a retrospective cohort study of 150 cases and 300 controls. Selection of subjects was by a retrospective review of records of in-patients from 2010-2013 in a state teaching hospital. Data was analyzed using Chi-square at 5% level of significance.
Results: Majority of subjects were between ages 20 – 29 years. The mean (SD) age of the cases was 40.6 (14.4) and controls was 38.6 (15.8). Ninety (60%) of the cases and 212(70.7%) of the controls were males (p= 0.023). Almost 87% of the cases and 42% of the controls ingest herbal concoction. Use of bleaching substances was more among the cases 20(13.4%) compared with the controls 2(0.7%), ( p= 0.001). Eight (5.3%) of the cases had family history of CKD while only 1(0.3%) of the control had similar history (p= 0.001). There were more cases (10.7%) with diabetic mellitus compared with the controls (2.7%), (p= 0.001). The number of cases with high blood pressure was more than the number of controls, (p-value <0.001). Sixty-four percent of the cases had history of chronic use of analgesic compared with 10.3% of the controls (p < 0.001).
Conclusions: CKD is mostly found among men in their productive age, who were either diabetic or hypertensive with history of ingestion of herbal concoction and chronic use of analgesic. Individual should engage in regular medical check, modify their life style while government and health care providers increase awareness and campaign on the causes and risk factors of CKD.