Paediatric nephrectomy: Patterns, indications and outcome in a developing country
Patterns of and indications for nephrectomy vary in different age groups, geographical locations and time periods. In some series nephrectomies were mainly for malignant conditions while in others they were predominantly for non-malignant conditions. Such data on patterns, indications, and outcomes of nephrectomy in children is limited in our environment.
To evaluate nephrectomy in childhood at the Sub-Department of Pediatric Surgery University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla Enugu with a focus on pattern, indications, and outcome.
Materials And Methods
Medical records of all patients aged ≤16years who had nephrectomy from January 2007 to December 2016 were studied with emphasis on age, sex, side of nephrectomy, duration of symptoms before presentation, indication for nephrectomy, in-hospital complications, length of hospital stay, in-hospital mortality. SPSS version 15 was used for data entry and analysis.
There were 52 nephrectomies in 32 males and 20 females. They were for 35 malignant and 17 non-malignant conditions. Most of the malignancies were Wilms tumour (34/35) while non-malignant conditions were late-presenting pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (9), large multi-cystic dysplastic kidneys (4), renal trauma with pedicle avulsion (1), posterior urethral valve with atrophic kidney (1),duplex system with nonfunctioning upper pole moiety (2). Mean age at nephrectomy was 5.10±3.66 years (range 7 weeks to 16 years); 59% of the nephrectomies were on the left and 41% on the right. Mean duration of hospital stay was 31.78±16.59 days (range 7-66 days). In-hospital mortality rate was 5.8%.
In our unit, nephroblastoma is the main indication for pediatric nephrectomy and were the only indications in females; neglected pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction was the major non-malignant indication and occurred only in males; most nephrectomies were done in the age range of 1-5 years; nephron-sparing nephrectomy, major morbidity, re-operation are uncommon and in-hospital mortality from nephrectomy is still high at 5.8%.