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Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy could induce miscarriage, congenital anomalies in foetuses and encephalitis in HIV-infected people. Hence, there is a need to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected pregnant women to inform clinicians about the significance of maternal toxoplasmosis in antenatal care.
This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection, associated CD4+ T-cell profile and sociodemographic risk factors among pregnant women with or without HIV infection attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria.
This hospital-based cross-sectional study involved blood samples collected from 160 HIV-infected and 160 HIV-seronegative pregnant women. These samples were analysed for anti-T. gondii (IgG and IgM) and CD4+ T-cell count using ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Sociodemographic variables of participants were collected using structured questionnaires.
The overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM was 28.8% and 3.8%, respectively. The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM was 29.4% and 4.4%, respectively, among HIV-seropositive pregnant women and 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively, among HIV-seronegative women. There was no significant association between the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii-IgG and anti-T. gondii-IgM with age, gestational age, education level, parity or place of residence of HIV-infected pregnant women (P > 0.05). However, there was significant association between the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii-IgG (P = 0.03) and anti-T. gondii-IgM (P = 0.01) with education level. CD4+ T-cell count varied significantly between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women (P = 0.035).
In this study, the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM did not differ in HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative pregnant women. However, women with primary T. gondii and HIV coinfection had lower CD4+ T-cell count than those with toxoplasmosis monoinfection.