Pregnancy outcome of HIV-infected women on anti-retroviral therapy in a treatment centre in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: a retrospective analysis
Introduction: There are conflicting reports of adverse pregnancy outcomes following the administration of antiretroviral treatment (ARVs) to HIV-positive pregnant women. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs and to underscore their importance in limiting adverse pregnancy outcomes in newborns.
Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of medical records of HIV-infected pregnant women who received anti-retroviral treatment at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 2010 and December 2013. Data was analyzed using Epi Info Version 7 Statistical Package. Proportions, measures of centrality/dispersion as well as measures of association between maternal predictors and birth outcomes were computed. The level of significance was set at p≤ 0.05.
Results: A total of 290 medical records of women who received anti-retroviral treatment were examined: 68.3% women commenced antiretroviral treatment before pregnancy, 3.8% started in 2nd trimester of pregnancy and 14.1% during labour. Pregnancy outcomes were as follows: 90.7% were live births; 92.4% neonates had Apgar scores ≥7 and 90.7% had birth weights of ≥ 2,500 grams. More than half, 55.9% had haemoglobin levels ≥ 10g/dl, while 84.8% of them were born full term. There were only 9.3% stillbirths and 9.3% low birth weights respectively, and also 15.2% preterm births.
Conclusion: The prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the study was minimal and stresses the value of antiretroviral treatment in the prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes in newborns. We therefore recommend its intensified utilization for maximum impact in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Keywords: HAART, HIV, PMTCT, pregnancy, Port Harcourt, Nigeria