The Role of Bone Marrow Aspiration in The Epidemiological Pattern of Hematological Disorders
Bone marrow aspiration is considered one of the most valuable diagnostic tool for evaluating hematologic disorders in both developing and developed countries. The objective of this study was to determine demographic pattern of hematological disorders on bone marrow aspiration examination and review the clinical justifications for physician referral. A retrospective analysis of bone marrow aspiration cytology reports of patients referred to Hematology department of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital between January 2010 to May 2014. Results analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0. Bone marrow aspiration reports from 104 patients for the period spanning from January 2010 to May 2014 were reviewed . Male sex predominate (67.3%) (70 of 104) in the study with female representing (32.7%) (34 of 104). The mean age was 35 ± 1.5 years ranging between 3 to 90 years . Both right posterior superior iliac spine (RPSIS and left posterior superior iliac spine (LPSIS) constitute 41 % each of the sites for aspiration. Of the total aspiration done, Ninety-five (95) revealed pathologic findings while five (5) had normal appearance. The commonest pathologic findings were mixed deficiency anemia 35 (33.6%) followed by megaloblastic anemia (MA) 15(14.4%). Lymphadenopathy was the commonest indication with normal bone marrow findings accounting for (40%) ( 2 of 5 ). The most commonest indication for bone marrow aspiration (BMA) was (76.9%) (80 of 104) followed by thrombo-cytopenia (44.2%) (46 of 104). Bone marrow aspiration plays a vital role at the diagnosis of various hematologic disorders. Common hematologic disorders in our environment are mixed deficiency anemia and acute leukemia. There is need for more emphasis on expanding the scope of laboratory investigations beyond morphology and a closer collaboration amongst all specialties in consulting on patients that would require hematologist reviewed for diagnosis and treatment of hematological disorders.
Keywords: Bone marrow aspiration, Hematological disorders, Physician's referral, Epidemiology.