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Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Baked Products from Blends of Wheat and African Yam Bean (<i>Sphenostylis stenocarpa</i>) Water- Extractable Proteins

IC Ade
EK Ingbian
JO Abu


Blends of wheat flour (WF) and African yam bean water-extractable proteins (AYBWEP) were processed into bread and cookies in the following ratios: 100: 0; 95: 5; 90: 10; 85: 15; 80: 20. The proximate composition, physical, chemical properties and sensory properties of bread and cookies samples from the blends were determined. Breads and cookies produced from the resultant blends were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in protein (16.39% – 18.36%) than the control (11.80% – 12.58%). Carbohydrate content decreased from 60.74% with addition of AYBWEP to 52.81%
following 20% substitution. The pH of bread samples prepared from whole wheat flour and blends of wheat flour and AYBWEP were significantly different (p < 0.05) while bulk density and specific volume were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The pH of bread samples and cookies decreased with increase in the proportion of the AYBWEP blend from 5% to 20%. The highest specific volume (3.70ml/g) was observed in bread samples prepared from the control 100: 0 blends while the 80:20 blends had the lowest specific volume (3.10 ml/g). There was no significant
difference (p > 0.05) in the bulk density and thickness of the cookies. The cookies prepared using 80: 20 blends had the higher diameter (22.53 cm) and spread factor (54.03 cm) compared to the control. Generally, acceptability of the bread and cookies decreased with higher ratios of AYBWEP inclusion. The sensory acceptability scores showed the best AYBWEP substitution level for making bread and cookies was 5% and 10% of the AYBWEP respectively. The results are discussed in the context of the growing importance of promoting the processing and utilization of lesser
known local crops in baked products.enrichment.