Relationships of Anthropometric Indices of Centripetal Adiposity With Essential Hypertension and Type - 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Kano Metropolis
The use of centripetal indices of adiposity for cardiovascular risk prediction is gaining popularity over body mass index (BMI). This study seeks to investigate the relationships of centripetal adiposity indices with essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus and find sexual dimorphism in such relationship in Kano. It also investigates the correlation between centripetal adiposity indices and BMI. The study included 405 registered hypertensive, diabetic or hypertensive – diabetic subjects (215 females and 190 males) with mean age of 53.4±0.36. The adiposity indices [BMI, waist circumference (WC) hip circumference (HC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR)] were obtained using standard protocol. Chi-square and Pearson correlation were used to test for the relationship as described. The results showed that WC was not significantly associated (p>0.05) with essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in females, but was significant in males (P = 0.04). In both sexes, WHR was significantly associated with essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, a stronger relationship was observed in males (P < 0.0001). Where both WC and WHR correlated positively with essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in males, the relationship was stronger for WHR (P < 0.0001) compared to WC (P = 0.04). In conclusion, WHR in both sexes had significant association with essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus while WC in males correlated strongly with BMI compared to WHR.
Keywords: Centripetal adiposity, essential hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Sexual dimorphism.