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Leukemoid reaction associated with transitional cell carcinoma: A case report and literature review

H He
Z Zhang
J Ge
W Zhou


The goal of this article was to investigate the diagnosis, treatment and mechanisms of the leukemoid reaction (LKR) 14 15 associated with transitional cell carcinoma. A 64-year-old male patient presented with anuria. Color ultrasound imaging 15 16 revealed a large bladder tumor. Digital radiography and computerized tomography of the chest, abdomen
and pelvis 16 17 revealed only bilateral hydronephrosis, but did not reveal any metastasis. The pre-operative white blood cell count in 17 18 the peripheral blood consistently increased to 58,400/mm3 while neutrophil granulocyte count was 54,900/mm3, without 18 19 fever. RadicalĀ  cystectomy and construction of bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy was performed. The histological diagnosis 19 20 was transitional cell carcinoma, Grade 3. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) staining was positive in tumor 20 21 cells. Results: After surgery, the leukocyte value became nearly normal. At 3 months later, patient was admitted to our 21 22 hospital with the complaints of the left leg edema, diagnosed as pelvic
lymph node metestasis. Patient died of systemic 22 23 metastasis within 6 months after the cystectomy. Bladder cancer associated with LKR, though rare, is considered highly 23 24 malignant, difficult to diagnose and as having poor prog

Key words: Bladder cancer, immunohistochemistry, leukemoid reaction, lymphatic metastasis

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eISSN: 2229-7731
print ISSN: 1119-3077