Effects of erbium‑and chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet and diode lasers on the surfaces of restorative dental materials: A scanning electron microscope study
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of laser irradiation, which is commonly performed in periodontal surgery, on the surfaces of restorative materials.
Materials and Methods: Five different restorative dental materials were used in this study, as follows: (1) Resin composite, (2) polyacid‑modified resin composite (compomer), (3) conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), (4) resin‑modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and (5) amalgam. Four cylindrical samples (8 mm diameter, 2 mm height) were prepared for each restorative material. In addition, four freshly extracted, sound human incisors teeth were selected. Two different laser systems commonly used in periodontal surgery were examined in this study: A 810 nm diode laser at a setting of 1 W with continuous‑phase laser irradiation for 10 s, and an erbium‑and chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser at settings of 2.5 W, 3.25 W, and 4 W with 25 Hz laser irradiation for 10 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to evaluate the morphology and surface deformation of the restorative materials and tooth surfaces.
Results: According to the SEM images, the Er, Cr: YSGG laser causes irradiation markings that appear as demineralized surfaces on tooth samples. The Er, Cr: YSGG laser also caused deep defects on composite, compomer, and RMGIC surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High‑magnification SEM images of GIC samples showed the melting and combustion effects of the Er, Cr: YSGG laser, which increased as the laser power was increased. In amalgam samples, neither laser left significant harmful effects at the lowest power setting. The diode laser did cause irradiation markings, but they were insignificant compared with those left by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser on the surfaces of the different materials and teeth.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation could cause distortions of the surfaces of restorative materials. Diode lasers can be preferred for periodontal surgery.
Key words: Erbium chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet, diode laser, restorative dental materials, scanning electron microscope