Efficacy of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the management of hydrocephalus in children under 2 years of age: Experience from a tertiary institution in Nigeria
Background: The management of hydrocephalus in developing countries is challenging. Hydrocephalus is a common childhood disorder in developing countries in particular and its management is quite challenging. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is associated with high failure rates and complications. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with potentially lower complication rate could improve care and reduce cost of management of hydrocephalus.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy (success rate) of ETV in children ≤2 years and to find out factors that may be responsible for good outcome of ETV.
Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. Nigeria. All consecutive children ≤2 years of age with hydrocephalus were recruited into the study. Relevant demographic and clinical data documented. All cases had ETV and were followed up to document 6 months outcome.
Results: A total of 34 patients (M: F ratio 1.1:1) were recruited over a 2‑year period. Age, sex, presumed aetiology and image findings were not statistically significant in influencing outcome of ETV. Good outcome (defined as uneventful postoperative period, not requiring repeat ETV or VP shunt) was documented in 26 (73.5%). A total of 8 (26.5%) experienced poor outcome. Complication occurred in 2 (5.9%) as follows: Wound infection 1 (2.9%) and ventriculitis 1 (2.9%). Aetiology was divided into non post‑infective hydrocephalus‑20 (58.8%), post‑infective hydrocephalus‑5 (14.7%) and post‑myelomeningocoele repair‑9 (26.5%).
Conclusions: This study shows that ETV success rate is high in the management of hydrocephalus in children ≤2 years in our clinical practice. Regardless of the clinical diagnosis, where the facilities are available, children with hydrocephalus will benefit from ETV irrespective of the age and aetiology in sub Saharan Africa.
Key words: Children, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, hydrocephalus, ventriculoperitoneal shunt