Correlation of the association of serum lactate, random blood sugar, and revised trauma score as predictors of outcome in hemodynamically unstable abdominal emergencies
Background: Elevated levels of serum lactate and glucose during resuscitation have been demonstrated to be predictors of morbidity and mortality in hemodynamically unstable patients with surgical abdominal conditions. However, the rate of return to normal levels of both lactate and blood glucose may be better predictors of mortality and morbidity. The aims of this study are: (I) To determine the pattern of serum lactate and glucose changes in patients with surgical abdominal conditions requiring resuscitation within 48 hours of presentation. (II) To correlate the predictive capability of these two independent parameters. (III) To correlate the predictive values of these parameters with the revised trauma score (RTS).
Patients and Method: This is a prospective observational study conducted over three months. The patients admitted by the general surgery division requiring resuscitation from shock was included in this study. Resuscitation was carried out with crystalloids. The estimation of serum lactate and glucose levels was done at presentation (0 hours), 12, 24 and 48 hours after admission. The revised trauma score (RTS) was calculated for each patient at presentation and at 12, 24 and 48 hours subsequently. The patients were followed up four weeks or when death occurred within four weeks of presentation.
Results: Forty four patients were recruited in the study. There were seven mortalities. The mean serum levels of Plasma glucose and lactate of all the patients were elevated at presentation in the emergency department.
Conclusion: Survival was better with a return to normal serum lactate within 12 hours. On the other hand the random plasma glucose (RPG) levels may not be useful in prognosticating patients. However a combination of serum lactate, RTS (at 24 and 48 hours) and RPG at 48 hours may improve predictive parameters in trauma related cases.
Key words: Glucose, lactate, mortality, trauma