Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

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Prevalence and predictors of placental malaria in human immunodeficiency virus‑positive women in Nigeria

E.O. Izuka, E.O. Ugwu, S.N. Obi, B.C. Ozumba, T.U. Nwagha, C.E. Obiora‑Izuka


Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‑infected pregnant women have alterations in cellular and humoral immunity that increase the risks to placental malaria infection.

Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of placental malaria among HIV‑positive women in Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: It was a longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women receiving antenatal care at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Peripheral blood sample for packed cell volume estimation and placental blood sample for malaria parasite estimation were collected from each participant at a presentation in labor and upon delivery, respectively.

Results: The Prevalence of placenta malaria (68.6%) and anemia (66.7%) in HIV‑positive women were significantly higher than the prevalence of placental malaria (35.3%) and anemia (44.1%) in HIV‑negative control (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001 respectively). The employment status was the only sociodemographic factor significantly associated with the development of placental malaria in HIV‑positive women (odds ratio: 21.60; 95% confidence interval: 7.1–66.2; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of placental malaria is very high among HIV‑positive women in Nigeria. Scaling up free distribution of insecticide treated nets in the short term and employment opportunities of HIV‑positive women, in the long run, may reduce the prevalence of placental malaria in our population.

Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus‑positive women, Nigeria, placental malaria
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