Chronic kidney disease in Chinese postmenopausal women: A cross‑sectional survey
Introduction: Despite advances in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD), there is ongoing uncertainty regarding the prevalence of CKD in postmenopausal women. This study was designed to investigate both CKD prevalence and related risk factors in a cohort of postmenopausal Chinese women.
Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of female Chinese participants, including a total of 47,204 subjects, among whom were 8573 self‑reported postmenopausal women. CKD was defined as either an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 body surface area or else the presence of albuminuria. All subjects completed a questionnaire that included items related to their lifestyles and medical histories. Data were collected on blood pressure, serum creatinine, urinary albumin, and urinary creatinine. Risk factors correlated with the presence of CKD were analyzed using logistic regression analysis.
Results: Results showed that the adjusted prevalence of an eGFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 among this postmenopausal survey cohort was 5.3% (95% confidence interval: 4.7–6.1) and of albuminuria, 12.4% (11.7–13.1). The overall prevalence of CKD in this postmenopausal cohort was 16.6% (15.8–17.4). Factors associated with kidney pathology included nephrotoxic drug use, history of cardiovascular disease, hyperuricemia, hypertension, and diabetes (the lower limit of multivariable adjusted odds ratios > 1).
Conclusion: The current study revealed a high prevalence of CKD in Chinese postmenopausal women. These results provide baseline data for disease prevention and treatment.
Key words: Albuminuria, Chinese postmenopausal women, chronic kidney disease, creatinine, cross‑sectional survey, glomerular filtration rate