Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing factors and early neonatal outcome
Background: Although research has shown that having a macrosomic fetus could be predictive of a negative pregnancy outcome, the factors that control its incidence and the outcome of delivery management have been less well characterized in Africa. The aim of this study was to identify specific predispositions and the factors that influence the early neonatal outcome of macrosomic infants in Abuja.
Methods: Data from 120 mother and macrosomic (weighing ≥4000 g) newborn pairs, and an equal number of mother and normal weight (2500–3999 g) matched controls, delivered over a 5-month period at three large hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria, were analyzed. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were performed for various predisposing factors and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic births.
Results: The incidence of macrosomia was 77 per 1000 births. Independent predictors of macrosomia were parental high social class (P = 0.000), gestational weight gain of ≥15 kg (P = 0.000), and previous history of macrosomia (P = 0.002). The most frequent route of delivery was emergency cesarean section accounting for 51 (42%) births. Macrosomia was significantly associated with higher rates of birth injuries (P = 0.030), perinatal asphyxia (P = 0.015), admissions into the special care newborn unit (P = 0.000), and hypoglycemia (P = 0.000). Although the difference in the early neonatal mortality rates between the macrosomic group (2.5%) and the control group (0.8%) was not statistically significant, nearly 70% of deaths in the macrosomic group were associated with severe perinatal asphyxia.
Conclusion: Our findings highlight the need for improved anticipatory care of the macrosomic fetus at delivery, in Africa.
Keywords: Africa, delivery complications, early neonatal outcome, macrosomia,