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Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

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The pattern of significant lesions found in computerized tomography scan of recurrent seizure patients at a center in Enugu, Nigeria

A.B. Ezeala‑Adikaibe, S.C. Ohaegbulam, CA Ndubuisi

Abstract


Introduction: Seizures are common reasons for neurologic consultations and investigations. In the absence of magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography scanning of the brain is a reliable and cheaper alternative. Little is known about the pattern of brain lesions in patients with recurrent seizures in Nigeria.


Objectives: To determine the pattern of significant intracerebral lesions in patients presenting with recurrent seizures in a tertiary hospital in Enugu.

Methods: All the medical and computer tomography records of patients with a clinical diagnosis of recurrent seizures were reviewed. The study duration was 11 years (January 2003 to December 2013). Relevant data were obtained and  statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 19 and GraphPad Prism 6.

Results: The diagnostic yield of CT was 55.1%. Twenty (9.3%) individuals had two lesions each. The significant findings were tumors (20.4%), encephalomalacia (18.9%) and strokes (7.7% (ischemic stroke, 4.1%, intracerebral hemorrhage,  3.1%, subarachnoid hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage, 0.5%).  Hydrocephalus (HCP) was found in 18 (9.2%) cases, and 30% of them occurred together with other lesions. The diagnostic yield increased with age reaching 84.4% from the age of 60 years. Only patients with encephalomalacia were statistically older than those with normal imaging.

Conclusion: Computed tomography scan has a high diagnostic yield, especially in elderly patients with recurrent generalized seizures. Brain tumors,  encephalomalacia, and HCP are most common causes of recurrent seizures in the adults.


Keywords: Computed tomography, Nigeria, recurrent seizures, space‑occupying lesions, strokes




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