Demographic Profile and Endoscopic Findings among Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, North‑Western Nigeria

  • M. Manko,
  • A.K. Bello
  • M.F. Mohammed
  • P.O. Egbegbedia
  • M. Daniyan
  • A.M. Jabir
  • S.K. Mustapaha
  • M.M. Dauda
Keywords: Esophageal varices, peptic ulcer disease, upper gastrointestinal bleeding


Background: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common medical emergency that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the demographic profile and etiology of UGIB in patients seen at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria, North-Western Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was carried out at the Gastroenterology Unit of ABUTH Zaria. Data of patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with UGIB from June 2017 to December 2019 were extracted from the endoscopy register and analyzed. Results: One hundred and forty-four patients had upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy done for UGIB during the period under review. Of these, 105 (72.9%) were males while 39 (27.1%) were females with male-to-female ratio of 2.7:1. The mean age of the patients was 43.5 ± 17.3 and their age ranges from 11 to 89 years. The modal age group was 40–49 years. The most common cause of UGIB was esophageal varices (67 [46.5%]) followed by erosive mucosal diseases: gastritis/duodenitis 43 (29.9%), esophagitis 12 (8.3%). Less common causes were peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in five (3.5%) patients, gastric tumor in two (1.4%), hiatus hernia in one (0.7%), and portal hypertensive gastropathy in one (0.7%). Thirteen patients (9.0%) had normal findings. Conclusion: Esophageal varices are the most common cause of UGIB among our patients and middle-aged male patients were the most commonly affected group.


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