Surgical consideration for benign bone tumors
AbstractBackground: The surgical management of symptomatic benign bone tumor has been described in various manners in medical literature. However, there are few published reports on the presentation and surgical management of benign bone tumors in black African patients.
Objectives: To determine the pattern of presentation of benign bone tumors and evaluate the common indications for surgery in a Nigerian Orthopedic Center.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of 67 patients, surgically treated for benign bone tumors, over a three-year period, at the National Orthopedic Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.
Results: The common histological types include, osteochondroma, giant cell tumor, and the simple bone cyst. These tumors have varying anatomic locations, but are more commonly located around the knee joint. In this series, most of the patients have presented with an active or aggressive stage of the disease. The most common indication for surgery is painful swelling; other indications include a pathological fracture, restricted range of movement, and peripheral nerve compression. The surgical procedures performed are simple excision, curettage, and stabilization; and 1-stage and 2-stage wide resection with reconstruction. Patients with significant bone defects have autologous bone grafting or methylmethacrylate cement application. Further stabilization is achieved with intramedullary or compression plate and screw fixation. Amputation has only been necessary in one patient with a huge aneurysmal bone cyst. At the average follow-up period of 28.6 months, five patients showed recurrence. All were with a histological diagnosis of giant cell tumor.
Conclusions: The mode of presentation of benign bone tumors in this group of black African patients is heterogenous, demanding various surgical options. Limb sparing is a largely feasible option, but the recurrence rate is particularly higher for giant cell tumors. Increase in the number of patients presenting with giant cell tumors raises the possibility of an increase in the incidence of this condition in the black African population. Larger multicenter studies in the black African population may shed more light on the actual incidence of giant cell tumors and other bone tumors in this group of patients.