Pattern of gastrointestinal opportunistic infections among HIV seropositive patients in federal medical centre, Owo, Ondo State
Background: Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections can be of considerable concern for people managing cases of HIV/AIDS because they tend to increase morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the pattern of gastrointestinal parasitic opportunistic infections in HIV seropositive patients at the Federal Medical Centre, Owo.
Method: Systematic random sampling was used to select 224 patients who attended Outpatients' clinics of the Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State. Patients were interviewed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire for information on relevant sociodemographic indices. The respondents were classified, using World Health Organisation (WHO) clinical staging, into stage I, II and III2. Relevant haematological parameters were studied with MIdray Haematology Analyser. Three stools specimens were collected and studied using standard laboratory methods and modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining procedure. Consent for the study was obtained from the participants and from the Hospital's Ethical Committee. Data were analysed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.
Result: Sixteen percent (16%) of the study population had gastrointestinal parasitic opportunistic infections. Twenty-two per cent (22%) of these had mixed parasitosis of cryptosporidium and hookworm. There was no significant association of CD4 cells count with intestinal parasitosis. x2 = 5.286 and p=0.259. However marital status was significantly associated with gastrointestinal opportunistic parasitosis with x2 of 12.693, p=0.005.
Conclusion: That opportunistic gastrointestinal parasitosis is present among HIV patients in Ondo State. HIV care givers should be aware of this and take appropriate preventive measures to combat the problem. Recommendations: Family Physicians and other doctors caring for PLWHAs in Owo should note the presence of cryptosporidium specie in the study population and be ready to take appropriate anticryptosporidiosis measures in cases of chronic diarrhoea, as it may be the culprit organism.