Sociodemographic profile and clinical determinants of prediabetes among adults at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Background: Prediabetes is an intermediate phase in the natural history of type 2 diabetes mellitus in which individuals have blood
glucose levels higher than normal but not enough to be classified as diabetes mellitus. Early detection and timely intervention would
prevent or slow its progression to diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the sociodemographic profile and clinical determinants of prediabetes among adults at the General Out-patient Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria.
Methods: Across sectional study was carried out among 385 adult patients who met the inclusion criteria. Demographic and clinical
characteristics were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Prediabetes was defined as Fasting blood glucose of
6.1-6.9mmol/L and plasma glucose of 7.8-11.1mmol/L two hours after a 75g glucose load. The data was analyzed using Statistical
Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0.
Results: A total of 385 participants were recruited for the study, 14 were excluded due to incomplete data and complete data for 371
participants was analyzed. The participants comprised 155 (41.8%) males and 216 (58.2%) females giving a male female ratio of 1:1.4. Their ages ranged from 18 to 85 years with a mean age of 44 (SD±13.6) years. Majority of the participants were married and were Hausas. The predominant occupation and religion were trading and Islam respectively. Seventy-one (19.1%) out of 371participants had prediabetes. Of the 71 with prediabetes 16 (22.5 %) had impaired fasting glucose, 43 (60.5%) had impaired glucose tolerance while 12 (17%) had both impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Increasing age (p< 0.0001), obesity (p <0.0001) and hypertension (p<0.0001) were significant determinants of prediabetes.
Conclusion: The prevalence of prediabetes of 19.1% is relatively high in this study population. The identified risk factors were increasing age, obesity and hypertension. Individuals with prediabetes should be educated on lifestyle modification to prevent or delay progression to diabetes.
Keywords: Prediabetes, Fasting blood glucose, Impaired glucose tolerance