Incidence and evaluation of risk factors of microalbuminuria among diabetics and non-diabetics in Lagos, Nigeria
AbstractContrary to African diabetic situation, clinical studies in developed countries have recognized microalbuminuria as a risk factor of renal dysfunction and pathogenic agent for deterioration of diabetes mellitus in diabetic and non-diabetic populations. This clinical understanding has enabled optimization of clinical practices that improve prognosis of diabetic management and reduce susceptibility to renal disease. This present study has investigated the incidence and risks of microalbuminuria in 115 diabetic patients aged 5 – 65 years with illness duration of < 1 yr, 1 – 5 yr and > 5 yr and 50 age and sex-matched non-diabetic subjects attending General Hospitals, Lagos, Nigeria. Blood pressures (SBP & DBP) and plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TAG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) as well as body mass index (BMI) were determined to establish associations with microalbuminuria. The incidence of microalbuminuria was found to be 22.2%, 31.6% and 59.1% (P < 0.05) among the diabetic groups, suggesting a linear relationship with the duration of diabetes in these patients. 26% of non-diabetics had microalbuminuria of no significant disparity (P > 0.05) when compared to diabetics of < 1 yr-old duration. Multiple regression analyses indicate significant association (P < 0.05) between SBP, DBP, TC, LDL-C and microalbuminuria in diabetic > 5 yr. While all the atherogenic parameters except LDL-C associate strongly (P < 0.05) with microalbuminuria in diabetics of 1 – 5 yr. The lipid atherogenic components minus TAG were found to relate strongly with microalbuminuria in diabetics of < 1yr duration. Elevated BMI strongly predicts the risk of microalbuminuria in the non-diabetics examined.
Keywords: microalbuminuria, diabetics, non-diabetics, atherogenic parameters, Lagos
Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 81-88