Prevalence, pattern and risk factors for retinal vascular occlusions in a tertiary hospital in Jos, Nigeria
Introduction: Retinal vascular occlusions are the second most common retinal vascular diseases following diabetic retinopathy. They are associated with several systemic and ocular pathologies and are significant causes of visual loss.
Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence, pattern and risk factors for retinal vascular occlusions in a tertiary hospital in Jos,Nigeria.
Methodology: A retrospective review of all cases of retinal vascular occlusions seen in the eye clinic from January 2011 to December 2014 was carried out.The patients were identified from the clinic register and their case folders retrieved.The following data were then extracted from the files; patients' age, sex, presenting visual acuity, presence of any systemic disorders and type of retinal vascular occlusion.Data analysis was done using Epi Info 7.
Results: Three thousand eight hundred and twenty one new patients were seen during the study period and there were 52 (1.36%) cases of retinal vascular occlusions.Only the case files of 44(84.6%) patients were available and were analysed. These were made up of 17 (39%) males and 27 (61%) females.These had a total of 46 retinal vascular occlusions made up of 37 (80.4%)retinal vein occlusions,8 (17.4%) central retinal artery occlusions and a case (2.2%) of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion. Hypertension and diabetes were the most common systemic risk factors while glaucoma was the most common ocular association.
Conclusion: Retinal vascular occlusions are uncommon in our centre butlead to severe visual loss and are associated with significant systemic pathologies.
Keywords: Retinal vein occlusion,retinal artery occlusion