Proteinuria and haematuria in apparently healthy primary school children in Enugu, Nigeria
Background: Mass screening for proteinuria and haematuria is advocated, especially in resource-poor countries with non-existent health insurance policy, to enhance awareness of renal diseases. This screening increases the chance for early detection and treatment, which in turn reduces incidences of resultant kidney failures.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria and haematuria in apparently healthy primary school children in Enugu.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey involving apparently healthy primary school children in Enugu, aged 6 to 12 years, conducted from January 2018 and March 2018 through a pre-tested, caregiver administered questionnaire. Subjects were clinically examined, and samples of on-the-spot mid-stream urine collected from each participant for dipstick urinalysis. The data obtained were analyzed using the Software Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 22 for Windows
Results: One thousandchildren comprising, 437 (44%) males and 563 (56%) females were selected with an age range of 6 to 12 years and a mean of 10.13 ± 1.81 years. A total of 190(19%) urinary abnormalities were noted existing as isolated proteinuria, isolated haematuria or as a combination of both. These urinary abnormalities were more in the females, higher among the early adolescents (9-12 years) with proteinuria predominating.
Conclusion: Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities can easily be detected early in the course of renal disease development. A urine dipstick is an important tool in the screening program for everybody, including children of school age. It is important that screening programs be organized for these children at regular intervals and those with positive findings referred immediately for appropriate management.
Keywords: Proteinuria, Haematuria, Primary school children, Prevalence. Running title: Proteinuria and haematuria in school-aged children in Enugu.