Profile of Nonhypertensive Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Traders in the Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria

  • Ofonime Nkechinyere Ukweh
  • Sidney K. Oparah
  • Ikechukwu Henry Ukweh
  • Joy N. Iya‑Benson
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inactivity, noncommunicable diseases, nonhypertensive, obesity


Background: The global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is mainly driven by modifiable risk factors, with sub‑Saharan Africa
as the region to bear the brunt of the increasing burden. Emphasis has been on hypertension while side‑lining the others to variable extents. Furthermore, the work environment, which plays an important role in the social life of adults has received less attention. This study aimed to identify nonhypertensive modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among traders in an urban market in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, we collected data on demographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk profile
from eligible traders at Marian market, using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The anthropometric and blood sugar measurements of the participants were duly obtained. Results: Ahundred and fifty‑one traders comprising 97 (64.2%) females and 54 (35.8%) participated in the study. Physical inactivity (58.3%), obesity (33.1%), risky alcohol consumption (17.9%), diabetes (9.9%), and cigarette smoking (2%) were the identified modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. A greater proportion of the females was obese compared to the males (P = 0.009), whereas the males had greater proportions with physical inactivity (P = 0.003), risky alcohol  consumption (P = 0.026), and cigarette smoking (P = 0.022). Conclusion: The proportion of nonhypertensive cardiovascular risk factors was high in the traders, with physical inactivity, obesity, and risky alcohol consumption identified as the most prevalent. Preventive  measures to mitigate the increasing burden of CVDs should be extended to traders.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inactivity, noncommunicable diseases, nonhypertensive, obesity


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2667-0526
print ISSN: 1115-2613