Risk Factors for Placenta Praevia in Jos, North Central Nigeria
Background: Placenta praevia, a major cause of obstetric haemorrhage, is potentially lifethreatening to the mother and frequently results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Several epidemiological and clinical studies report disparate data on the risk factors associated with this condition. Although several studies on risk factors for placenta praevia have been published, data obtained from the sub-Saharan Africa remains scanty. Our objective is to describe the spectrum of risk factors for placenta praevia in Jos, North Central Nigeria. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 96 women delivered form January, 1999 to December, 2002 at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Data on total number of deliveries, maternal age, parity, and past obstetrics history and abortion were carefully extracted from medical records and analyzed using the Epi Info 3.4.1 (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia). Results: The prevalence of placenta praevia was 0.89%. Previous uterine evacuation was documented in 35.4% of cases, while previous caesarean section scar occurred in 5.2% of cases. About half (44.8%) of the cases had no known risk factor. Conclusion: Uterine scaring following abortion management is an important risk factor for placenta praevia. However, majority of patients with placenta praevia in this work have no identifiable risk factor.
Key Words: placenta praevia, antepartum haemorrhage, risk factors, North central Nigeria