MEDICINAL APPLICATION OF VERNONIA AMYGDALINA DEL LEAF EXTRACTS IN THE TREATMENT OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN MICE
AbstractThe curative and prophylactic effects of petroleum ether and ethanolic leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del (family Compositae) were investigated in mice with experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection. Thirty male Swiss albino mice of 20-25g weight (7-8 weeks old) in six groups of five each were used. Mice in groups A & B were experimentally infected, by intraperiotoneal inoculation, with a 200 dose of Schistosoma mansoni type cercariae obtained from Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails. Mice in groups A and B were respectively, treated (I.P) with petroleum ether extract (PEVA) and ethanolic extra (EEVA) of the plant at a dose of 1mg/kg bw for five consecutive days following the detection of lateral spined eggs in their faeces (10 weeks post-inoculation). Mice in groups C and D received a single prophylactic dose (1mg/kg bw) of PEVA and EEVA respectively 24h before the animals were inoculated with the cercercial dose. Animals in groups E and F served as positive (infected not treated) and negative (non-infected non-treated) control respectively. Mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and necropsy done. EVA and EEVA reduced the parasite load in mice by 72.3% and 83.61% respectively. Chemoprophylactic application recorded 34.06% and 44.57% reduction of parasite load for PEVA and EEVA respectively. The non-infected non-treated mice (negative control) showed no signs of infection while the infected but not treated (positive control) were anaemic with severe enteritis, enlarge and congested kidney, liver and spleen (hepato splenomegaly) with areas of necrosis. Changes in the mean liver weights of treated and non-treated infected mice were not significant (P>0.05). The result show that the leaf extracts of V. amygdalina have potential curative effects on experimental schistosomiasis in mice.
Key Words: Schistosoma mansoni, Vernonia amygdalina, Compositae, cercariae, infection, mice.
Nig. J. Nat Prod. And Med. Vol.4 2000: 73-75