Effect of dietary black pepper (Piper nigrum) on gut ecosystem and blood profile of broiler chickens under production conditions
Effect of dietary black pepper (BP) on the digseta pH, viscosity, bacteria population, and blood profile of broilers was investigated. 150 Abor-acre day old chicks were used. Five diets (BP1-BP5) containing respectively 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0% BP were formulated. BP1 was the control containing no BP. Each treatment was replicated thrice each having 10 birds arranged in completely randomized design. Feed and water were given ad libitum for 7 weeks. Results indicated that BP increased (P<.0.05) white and red blood cells, haemoglobin and packed cell volume at 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0%. Glucose was increased (P<0.05) at all levels. Total protein, albumin and globulins were reduced by 1.0%. Alkalinephosphatase, alanineaminotransferase and aspartateaminotransferase were reduced by 0.75 and 1.0% (P<0.05). There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in urea and creatinine. BP reduced pH in crop and gizzard, while all the levels reduced viscosity. Bacteria population was not reduced in the crop (P>0.05). In gizzard, staphylococcus was reduced by 0.75 and 1.0%. In duodenum, ileum, and caecum, above 0.25%, number of bacteria was reduced. No significant difference was observed in large intestine. In conclusion, BP could be used to improve the well being of broilers but should not be used above 0.50%.
Keywords: bacteria population, black pepper, blood profile, broilers, digesta viscosity